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A Solitary Heathen's Worldview in Modern Times
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Changes in the History of Man

Things sure do change.  When I went to school, we still had 9 planets (alas poor Pluto that is another subj however), and things were taught a lot different about early man.  The latest version goes something like this:  the ancestors of man, walking apes, begain migrating from Africa long ago.  Several types of early man evolved from them, including Neandertal which lasted far longer than we have been around something like 400,000 years.  Some walking apes however, elected to stay in far southern Africa where they were subjected to a crucible of horrors as the climate changed to desert like conditions and this drought and famine lasted for a long long time.  The number of walking apes in this group dwindled to a few hundred, and took up murder and cannibalism among other things to survive. 

The became masters of scrounging food and extremely adaptable, also magnificent in development of primitive tools to help in this barely survivable place.  And one day the famine and drought ended, and this group EXPLODED in population, spreading like wildfire throughout Africa and later the world.  Everything was swept away before them, all other man like creatures disappeared where ever they spread, and they multiplied like fleas, evidently a survival mechanism from the bad days of famine and drought.  It wasn't long in Geologic terms before they exploded out of Africa and throughout the word.  For these were our ancestors...but what of the others?  Well, we know now that all humans except those who stayed in Africa have 2% Neandertal DNA as modern science allowed the DNA mapping of this other early human. 

Most likely they just could not compete against the rapidly multiplying "killer apes" from Africa who had far better hunting skills and were much quicker thinking etc.  But some interaction did happen ... based on brain mapping from inside the skulls of this alternative early man, the Neandertal were slow thinkers, not big on language, just the opposite of the new quick witted types pouring from Africa ... it is likely they just retreated from the onslaught until they finally faded from History around 25,000 years ago, about the same length of time before that when they first encounters our ancestors.  We also now know there was a smaller early man some have called "hobbit" man in Asia.  They do not know how long this species survived after H. Sapiens got in the picture.  What we do know is that where ever our species spread, all large predators disappear in short order (usually, or at least most of them, unable to compete with a more lethal and efficient killer), then all large prey animals also disappeared, hunted to extinction.  Later smaller prey ofen disappeared as well, but the population of man continues to multiply unabated.


yes, only things like the "black death" slowed it down at all.  and when we spread into the new world, why it was the Great Extinction soon after, they now think it more from early man than from any weather related condition tho ice ages affected man as well as beast.  now we herald the arrival of no 7 billion human on this overcrowded world.  What will happen to stop the endless mindless multiplying?  Some great plague perhaps?  The end of the world as we know it (TEOWAWKI to survival groups) from a new ice age or other disaster?  or perhaps the war to end all wars, maybe a new plague to wipe out most of the population?  We do not know, but all ages end, including the age of Man.  Someday far in the future if the planet survives at all, a different species perhaps of thinking insect who knows, will study our relics and fossils much as we do those of the dinosaurs. 

Of course then again some people believe the world is only 4 thousand years old, and for a long time science believed in the Flat Earth with us being the center of the Universe.


my how things do change :)

Spotted Cats of A Different Look (Savannah)
Has anyone heard of the "Savannah" cat?  They started this breed back in 90's I think when people bred a small African wildcat with bengal or abyssinian cats.  Pricing on them has a lot to do with how many generations removed from the wild ancestor they are, as well as how much of the lineage is savannah with savannah without outcrossing with dif. breeds.  I raise them for a hobby you can see pics and such at the website:


or just google Ozark Mountain Savannahs

Chris Vaughn

Climate? What is going on...
    Strange but true on news not long ago.  The anchor person asked the scientist about what was going on with the near record and record dome of heat over the middle of the country that had drifted east over the east coastal areas.  Scientist described how a dome of high pressure built in and then all the fossil fuel emissions pumped into it making it something that could hardly be affected or moved by normal weather.  He described how the cold fronts from Canada were only bouncing off the dome of thick, humid air filled with the smoke of millions of auto exhausts and hundreds of oil and coal fired power plants; bouncing off with little effect save along the edges.

    After he was done the news guy asked him: "well what can be done?"  The scientist looked at him like he was an idiot and said: "stop driving internal combustion powered automobiles."  The news guy just looked at him like "what else?"  but the answer had been given twice, once by the clues given in the orig. explanation, again point blank.  So the dome has retreated back into the midwest and the East into more normal temps; however, Texas and nearby areas have been baking under 100 plus temps for over a month now, and without any rain.  Cattle are being sold to slaughter due to lack of food and water for them by the ranchers.  Any guess what will happen to price of beef come fall?  Ag crops in affected areas as well?  The fields have long ago turned dirt brown after the crops died from lack of water and excessive heat.

   Meantime Europe has been in unusual cold?  If you saw the recent Grand Prix race in Germany?  People had on their coats and jackets due to temps below 55F.  The colder than normal summer pattern has been ongoing for awhile now.  And in south america, Chile had 6 ft of snow.  If this is an indicator of the coming winter here, like last year, a colder than normal winter in the southern hemisphere was followed by the same here in the northern hemisphere.  Guess we will see.

To DSL or Not DSL...that is the question
    Have been fighting the battle of  trying to keep connected for over a week now.  Seems the phone company and Basic just want to point finger at each other?  The local phone co. has said since the beginning that they believe the problem is with my modem itself, though is one of the "new" and pretty small ones not much  bigger than a cigarette pack.  Basic ISP our course says the problem is with the quality of the phone line.  I had about a week of trouble when I first got the dsl out here a couple months ago, and since then has worked fine ... until the week before last that is.

    What to do now?  I do not know.  Have had no luck resolving and can't see paying for service that does not work.  I was happy when the phone lines got upgraded a couple months back and could finally support DSL.  Before that I was among the 40 million or so Americans who live in places without viable access to high speed internet.  I do not count the satellite providers, because they are so expensive, as well as they charge you extra for your data amounts and limit without "excess" charges is some idiotic amount like 8 megs a day? 

   So, the phone co. has been out here twice in past week.  Both times saying the line was fine.  I have called in to Basic ISP cust service numerous times.  Each time I have to disconnect the computer because there is no phone in that room.  So it must be moved to another room where I have to hook it up and then call in.  After a couple fruitless hours of trying to get the service working, it must then be shut down, disconnected, and moved back to the bedroom where it is supposed to be at.  It is the same phone line (splitter) so that is not the issue as the phone co. already checked it.  But all I get is a "red" lite for internet on my modem.

   Anyways the last time I was on with Basic Cust Svc., they said leave the 'puter where it was at and they would check with  phone co. and call me back.  They never called back, and because i left 'puter in the dining room, the cat chewed thru the power cord to the modem.  That is why the computer is in the bedroom (cat free zone pretty much).  So what to do now?  I have no clue.  Every time the phone co. come out they want to sell you their internet.  It is cheaper than Basic at $15 a month but you must sign a 2 yr contract.  I did not like the sound of that coz you have to pay it even if you quit (15/mo for each month of 2 yr contract) no matter what...like a cell contract?

anyone have any suggestions?

too bad the dial up is only good for checking the e-mail.  is too slow to do any real work on web or even for listening to music...

chris (disgruntled Basic customer)
The Split between Shia and Sunni? Know Your Enemy!!!


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The Origins of the Sunni/Shia split in Islam
by Hussein Abdulwaheed Amin, Editor of IslamForToday.com

The Shia shahadah (declaration of faith) states:

"There is no god but Alláh, Muhammad is the Messenger of Alláh, Alí is the Friend of Alláh. The Successor of the Messenger of Alláh And his first Caliph."

If you are already familiar with standard Sunni beliefs, you will immediately notice the addition to the shahadah regarding Imam Ali (ra), cousin of the Prophet (pbuh), husband of his daughter Fatima, father of Hassan and Hussein and the second person ever to embrace Islam. The term Shia or Shi'ite derives from a shortening of Shiat Ali or partisans of Ali.

Ali is the central figure at the origin of the Shia / Sunni split which occurred in the decades immediately following the death of the Prophet in 632. Sunnis regard Ali as the fourth and last of the "rightly guided caliphs" (successors to Mohammed (pbuh) as leader of the Muslims) following on from Abu Bakr 632-634, Umar 634-644 and Uthman 644-656. Shias feel that Ali should have been the first caliph and that the caliphate should pass down only to direct descendants of Mohammed (pbuh) via Ali and Fatima, They often refer to themselves as ahl al bayt or "people of the house" [of the prophet].

When Uthman was murdered while at prayer, Ali finally succeeded to the caliphate. Ali was, however, opposed by Aisha, wife of the Prophet (pbuh) and daughter of Abu Bakr, who accused him of being lax in bringing Uthman's killers to justice. After Ali's army defeated Aisha's forces at the Battle of the Camel in 656, she apologized to Ali and was allowed to return to her home in Madinah where she withdrew from public life.

However, Ali was not able to overcome the forces of Mu'awiya Ummayad, Uthman's cousin and governor of Damascus, who also refused to recognize him until Uthman's killers had been apprehended. At the Battle of Suffin Mu'awiya's soldiers stuck verses of the Quran onto the ends of their spears with the result that Ali's pious supporters refused to fight them. Ali was forced to seek a compromise with Mu'awiya, but this so shocked some of his die-hard supporters who regarded it as a betrayal that he was struck down by one of his own men in 661.

Mu'awiya declared himself caliph. Ali's elder son Hassan accepted a pension in return for not pursuing his claim to the caliphate. He died within a year, allegedly poisoned. Ali's younger son Hussein agreed to put his claim to the caliphate on hold until Mu'awiya's death. However, when Mu'awiya finally died in 680, his son Yazid usurped the caliphate. Hussein led an army against Yazid but, hopelessly outnumbered, he and his men were slaughtered at the Battle of Karbala (in modern day Iraq). Hussein's infant son, Ali, survived so the line continued. Yazid formed the hereditary Ummayad dynasty. The division between the Shia and what came to be known as the Sunni was set.

An opportunity for Muslim unity arose in the 750's CE. In 750 except for a few who managed to flee to Spain, almost the entire Ummayad aristocracy was wiped out following the Battle of Zab in Egypt in a revolt led by Abu Al Abbass al-Saffah and aided by considerable Shia support. It was envisaged that the Shia spiritual leader Jafar As-Siddiq, great-grandson of Hussein be installed as Caliph. But when Abbass died in 754, this arrangement had not yet been finalised and Abbas' son Al Mansur murdered Jafar, seized the caliphate for himself and founded the Baghdad-based Abbassid dynasty which prevailed until the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258.

Theological Differences and Attempts at promoting Unity
The line of Mohammed (pbuh) through Ali and Hussein became extinct in 873CE when the last Shia Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, who had no brothers disappeared within days of inheriting the title at the age of four. The Shias refused, however, to accept that he had died, preferring to believe that he was merely "hidden" and would return. When after several centuries this failed to happen, spiritual power passed to the ulema, a council of twelve scholars who elected a supreme Imam. The best known modern example of the Shia supreme Imam is the late Ayyatollah Khomeni, whose portrait hangs in many Shia homes. The Shia Imam has come to be imbued with Pope-like infallibility and the Shia religious hierarchy is not dissimilar in structure and religious power to that of the Catholic Church within Christianity. Sunni Islam, in contrast, more closely resembles the myriad independent churches of American Protestantism.  Sunnis do not have a formal clergy, just scholars and jurists, who may offer non-binding opinions.  Shias believe that their supreme Imam is a fully spiritual guide, inheriting some of Muhammad's inspiration ("light") .  Their imams are believed to be inerrant interpreters of law and tradition.  Shia theology is distinguished by its glorification of Ali.  In Shia Islam there is a strong theme of martyrdom and suffering, focusing on deaths of Ali and, particularly, Hussein plus other important figures in the Shia succession.  Shi`ism attracted other dissenting groups, especially representatives of older non-Arab (Mawali) civilizations (Persian, Indian, etc.) that felt they had not been treated fairly by the Arab Muslims.

Sunnis and Shias agree on the core fundamentals of Islam - the Five Pillars - and recognize each others as Muslims.  In 1959 Sheikh Mahmood Shaltoot, Head of the School of Theology at Al Azhar university in Cairo, the most august seat of learning of Sunni Islam and the oldest university in the world, issued a fatwa (ruling) recognizing the legitimacy of the Jafari School of Law to which most Shias belong.  As a point of interest, the Jafari School  is named after its founder Imam Jafaf Sidiq who was a direct descendent through two different lines of the Sunni Caliph Abu Bakr.  And Al Azhar University, though now Sunni, was actually founded by the Shia Fatimid dynasty in 969CE.

However, there remain significant differences between the two forms of Islam and these are what tend to be emphasized.  Many Sunni's would contend that Shias seem to take the fundamentals of Islam very much for granted, shunting them into the background and dwelling on the martyrdoms of Ali and Hussein. This is best illustrated at Ashura when each evening over a period of ten days the Shias commemorate the Battle of Karbala, with a wailing Imam whipping the congregation up into a frenzy of tears and chest beating. It is alleged that instead of missionary work to non-Muslims, the Shia harbor a deep-seated disdain towards Sunni Islam and prefer to devote their attention to winning over other Muslims to their group. There is ongoing violent strife between Sunnis and Shias in Pakistan. On the other hand, in recent years there has been signification co-operation between the two groups in the Lebanon.  And some of the most dynamic developments in Islam today are taking place in Shia-dominated Iran.

Practical Differences
On a practical daily level, Shias have a different call to prayer, they perform wudu and salat differently including placing the forehead onto a piece of hardened clay from Karbala, not directly onto the prayer mat when prostrating. They also tend to combine prayers, sometimes worshipping three times per day instead of five. The Shias also have some different ahadith and prefer those narrated by Ali and Fatima to those related by other companions of the Prophet (pbuh). Because of her opposition to Ali, those narrated by Aisha count among the least favored.  Shia Islam also permits muttah - fixed-term temporary marriage - which is now banned by the Sunnis.  Muttah was originally permitted at the time of the Prophet (pbuh) and is now being promoted in Iran by an unlikely alliance of conservative clerics and feminists, the latter group seeking to downplay the obsession with female virginity which is prevalent in both forms of Islam, pointing out that only one of the Prophet's thirteen wives was a virgin when he married them.

Shias Today
Iran is overwhelmingly Shia - 89%. Shias also form a majority of the population in Yemen and Azerbaijan, Bahrain and 60% of the population of Iraq. There are also sizeable Shia communities along the east coast of Saudi Arabia and in the Lebanon.  The well known guerilla organization Hizbollah, which forced the Israelis out of southern Lebanon in 2000, is Shia.  Worldwide, Shias constitute ten to fifteen percent of the overall Muslim population.

Within Shia Islam there are different sects.  Most Shias are "Twelvers", i.e. they recognize the 12 Imams. There are also Sevener and Fiver Shias who don't recognize the later Imams.

Please find below a commentary from a Shia encyclopaedia concerning Sheikh Shaltoot's fatwa plus the English translation of the fatwa itself. Both were originally posted on the One Ummah site where the original Arabic version of the fatwa is also available.

At the very bottom of this page, you will find what I understand to be a complete statement of Shia beliefs.

©2001 Islam For Today dot com

Al-Azhar Verdict on the Shia

What follows is the Fatwa (religious verdict/ruling) of one of the Sunni world's most revered scholars, Sheikh Mahmood Shaltoot with regard to the Shia. Shaikh Shaltoot was the head of the renowned al-Azhar Theological school in Egypt, one of the main centers of Sunni scholarship in the world. It should be of interest to know that a few decades ago, a group of Sunni and Shia scholars formed a center at al-Azhar by the name of "Dar al-Taqreeb al-Madhahib al-Islamiyyah" which translates into "Center for bringing together the various Islamic schools of thought". The aim of the effort, as the name of the center indicates, was to bridge the gap between the various schools of thought, and bring about a mutual respect, understanding and appreciation of each school's contributions to the development of Islamic Jurisprudence, among the scholars of the different schools, so that they may in turn guide their followers toward the ultimate goal of unity, and of clinging to one rope, as the well-known Quranic verse, "Hold fast to the Rope of Allah and do not diverge" clearly demands of Muslims.

This massive effort finally bore its major fruit when Sheikh Shaltoot made the declaration whose translation is appended below. It should be made unequivocally clear as well, that al-Azhar's official position, vis a vis the propriety of following any of the Madhaahib (schools of law), including the Shi'ite Imami school, has remained unchanged since Shaikh Shaltoot's declaration.

For the readership's reference the phrase "al-Shia al-Imamiyyah al-Ithna 'Ashariyyah" means the Twelver Imami Shi'ite School of thought which comprises the overwhelming majority of Shi'ites today. The phrase "Twelver Shi'ites" is used interchangeably with "Ja'fari Shi'ites" and "Imami Shi'ites" in various literature. They are merely different names for the same school of thought.

"al-Shia al-Zaidiyyah" are a minority among the Shi'ites, concentrated mainly in Yemen located in the Eastern part of Arabian peninsula. For a more detailed description of the Zaidis vs. the Twelver Shi'ites, please refer to the book, "Shi'ite Islam" written by the great Shi'ite scholar, Allamah Tabataba'i, and translated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, and published by the State University of New York Press (SUNY).

And as for Shaikh Shaltoot's declaration ...


Fatwa (ruling) of Shaikh Mahmood Shaltoot

Head Office of al-Azhar University:

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL Text of the Verdict (Fatwa) Issued by His Excellency Shaikh al-Akbar Mahmood Shaltoot, Head of the al-Azhar University, on Permissibility of Following "al-Shia al-Imamiyyah" School of Thought

His Excellency was asked:

Some believe that, for a Muslim to have religiously correct worship and dealing, it is necessary to follow one of the four known schools of thought, whereas, "al-Shia al-Imamiyyah" school of thought is not one of them nor "al-Shia al-Zaidiyyah." Do your Excellency agree with this opinion, and prohibit following "al-Shia al-Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah" school of thought, for example?

His Excellency replied:

1) Islam does not require a Muslim to follow a particular Madh'hab (school of thought). Rather, we say: every Muslim has the right to follow one of the schools of thought which has been correctly narrated and its verdicts have been compiled in its books. And, everyone who is following such Madhahib [schools of thought] can transfer to another school, and there shall be no crime on him for doing so.

2) The Ja'fari school of thought, which is also known as "al-Shia al- Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah" (i.e., The Twelver Imami Shi'ites) is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought. Muslims must know this, and ought to refrain from unjust prejudice to any particular school of thought, since the religion of Allah and His Divine Law (Shari'ah) was never restricted to a particular school of thought. Their jurists (Mujtahidoon) are accepted by Almighty Allah, and it is permissible to the "non-Mujtahid" to follow them and to accord with their teaching whether in worship (Ibadaat) or transactions (Mu'amilaat).

Signed, Mahmood Shaltoot.


The above Fatwa was announced on July 6, 1959 from the Head of al-Azhar University, and was subsequently published in many publications in the Middle East which include, but are not limited to:

al-Sha'ab newspaper (Egypt), issue of July 7, 1959. al-Kifah newspaper (Lebanon), issue of July 8, 1959.

  • The above segment can also be found in the book "Inquiries about Islam", by Muhammad Jawad Chirri, Director of the Islamic Center of America, 1986 Detroit, Michigan.

Compiled by Ilyás Islám

La iláha il Alláh, Muhammadan Rasúl Alláh, Alíyun Walí-Alláh, Wasíyu Rasulillah, wa Khalífa tuhu bila fasl. There is no god but Alláh, Muhammad is the Messenger of Alláh, 'Alí is the Friend of Alláh. The Successor of the Messenger of Alláh And his first Caliph.

1) Tawhíd (The Oneness of Alláh)
2) 'Adl (Divine Justice)
3) Nubuwwah (The Prophethood) 
4) Imámah (The Imamate) 
5) Qiyámah (The Day of Judgement)

1) Salat (Prayer)
2) Sawm (Fasting) 
3) Zakát (Poor-due of 2.5%)
4) Hajj (Pilgrimage to Makkah)
5) Khums (The Charity of 20%)
6) Jihad (To Struggle in the Path of Alláh)
7) Amr bil ma'ruf (To Promote the Good)
8) Nahy 'an al-munkar (To Forbid the Wrong)
9) Tawalla (Loving the Prophet's Family)
10) Tabarra (Shunning the Enemies of the Prophet's Family)

THE PROPHETS OF ALLÁH (mentioned in the Holy Qur'án)
1) Adam
2)Idrís (Idrees)
3) Núh (Noah)
4) Húd
5) Sálih
6) Ibráhím (Abraham)
7) Ismá'íl (Ishmael)
8) Isháq (Isaac)
9) Lút (Lot)
10) Ya'qúb (Jacob)
11) Yúsuf (Joseph)
12) Shu'aib
13)Ayúb (Job)
14) Músa (Moses)
15) Hárún (Aaron)
16) Dhu l-kifl (Ezzekiel)
17) Dawúd (David)
18) Sulaimán
19) Ilyás (Elijah)
20) al-Yasa' (Elisha)
21) Yúnus (Jonas)
22) Zakaríya (Zakariyah)
23) Yahyá (John the Baptist)
24) 'Ísa (Jesus)
25) Muhammad

In a famous hadith (prophetic tradition), the number of prophets given was 124 000. May the blessings of Alláh be upon them all. Prophethood ended with Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny). Then, Alláh deputed Imams to guide us.

1) Núh
2) Ibráhím
3) Músa
4) 'Ísa
5) Muhammad

1) Sahífa (scroll revealed to Nuh)
2) Sahífa (scroll revealed to Ibráhím)
3) Taurat (the book revealed to Músa)
4) Zabúr (the psalms revealed to Dawúd)
5) Injíl (the gospel revealed to 'Isa)
6) Qur'án (the Koran revealed to Muhammad)

Muhammad, Fátima al-Zahra, 'Alí, Hasan, Husayn

Muhammad, Fátima al-Zahra and the Twelve Imams


Name Title Year of birth and death
1) Imam 'Alí ibn Abu Talib al-Murtadha (The Satisfied One) 600–661
2) Imam Hasan ibn Ali al-Mujtabah (The Chosen One) 625–669
3) Imam Husayn ibn Ali Sayyid al-Shuhudah (The Lord of the Martyrs) 626–680
4) Imam 'Alí ibn Husayn Zayn al-Ábidín (The Jewel of the Believers) 658–713
5) Imam Muhammad al-Báqir (The Spreader of Knowledge) 676–743
6) Imam Ja'far al-Sádiq (The Truthful One) 703–765
7) Imam Músa al-Kazim (The Patient One) 745–799
8) Imam 'Alí al-Ridhá  (The Accepted One) 765–818
9) Imam Muhammad al-Taqí (The Pious One) 810–835
10) Imam 'Alí al-Naqí (The Pure One) 827–868
11) Imam Hasan al-Askarí (The One with an Army) 846–874
12) Imam Muhammad al-Mahdí (The Rightly-Guided One) 868—


The Twelth Imam is still alive. He is in a state of occultation. He will reappear at a moment determined by Alláh. He is the Awaited One who will spread justice throughout the world.

I bear witness that there is no god but Alláh and that Muhammad, peace be upon him, is His servant and Messenger, and that 'Alí, the Commander of the Faithful, and the Chief of the Deputies of Alláh, is the Imam whose obedience has been made incumbent by Alláh on all people; and that Hasan and Husayn, 'Alí ibn al-Husayn, Muhammad ibn 'Alí, Ja'far ibn Muhammad, Musa ibn Ja'far, 'Alí ibn Musa, Muhammad ibn 'Alí, 'Alí ibn Muhammad, Hasan ibn 'Alí, and the Living One, the Mahdí (the blessings of Alláh be upon them all), all the Imams of the believers and the Proofs of Alláh for the whole of creation are my Imams, the rightly-guiding and the pious. I bear witness that: Alláh is my God, Muhammad is my Prophet, Islam is my religion, the Qur'án is my scripture, the Ka'aba is my qibla, 'Alí ibn Abú Tálib is my Imam, Hasan ibn 'Alí is my Imam, Husayn, the Martyr of Karbala, son of 'Alí, is my Imam, 'Alí Zayn al-'Ábadín is my Imam, Muhammad al-Báqir is my Imam, Ja'far al-Sádiq is my Imam, Musa al-Kádhim is my Imam, 'Alí al-Ridhá is my Imam, Muhammad al-Taqí is my Imam, 'Alí al-Naqí is my Imam, Hasan al-Askarí is my Imam, and al-Huja al-Muntazar is my Imam. They, upon whom be peace, are my Imáms, Masters and Intercessors before Alláh. I love them, all of them, and shun their enemies in this life and the next.

I bear witness that: Alláh, the Almighty, the Exalted, is the best Lord; that Muhammad, the blessings of Alláh be upon him and his Family, is the best Prophet; and that the Commander of the Faithful, 'Alí ibn Abú Tálib, and his offspring, are the best Imams; and that the message Muhammad brought from Alláh is true, death is true, the questioning in the grave by Munkar and Nakír is true, the Resurrection of the dead is true, the appearance before Alláh is true, the Bridge (al-sirát) is true, the Divine Scales are true, the dissemination of the book of one's deeds at Doomsday is true, paradise is true, and hell is true; and that there is no doubt about the coming of the inevitable Hour of Reckoning; and that the rising of the dead from their graves is true.

1) Qadím: Alláh is eternal. He has neither a beginning nor an end.
2) Qadir: Alláh is omnipotent. He has power over all things.
3) 'Alim: Alláh is omniscient. He is all-knowing.
4) Hai: Alláh is living. He is alive and will remain alive forever
5) Muríd: Alláh has his own discretion is all affairs. He does not do anything out of compulsion.
6) Mudrik: Alláh is all-perceiving. He is all-hearing, all-seeing, and is omnipresent. Alláh sees and hears everything though he has neither eyes nor ears.
7) Mutakalim: Alláh is the Lord of the Worlds. He can create speech in anything: the burning bush for Musa and the curtain of light for Muhammad.
8) Sadiq: Alláh is truthful. His words and promises are true.

1) Sharík: Alláh has no partners.
2) Murakab: Alláh is neither made, nor composed, of any material.
3) Makán: Alláh is not confined to any place and has no body.
4) Hulúl: Alláh does not incarnate into anything or anybody.
5) Mahale hawadith: Alláh is not subject to changes. Alláh cannot change.
6) Marí: Alláh is not visible. He has not been seen, is not seen, and will never be seen, because he has no form or body.
7) Ihtiyaj: Alláh is not dependant. Alláh is not deficient, so he does not have any needs.
8) Sifate zayed: Alláh does not have added qualifications. The attributes of Alláh are not separate from His being.




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